i-8deea2948331da421477ca9ead8aed2e-gtaIVklein.jpg

Am 2.12. erschien die PC Version des Megasellers GTA IV. Der Rummel wird vermutlich nicht ganz so hoch schwappen, weil das Spiel schon seit Monaten für verschiedene Konsolen verfügbar ist.
Die ganze Grand Theft Auto Serie wurde aber bisher sehr oft (neben Counterstrike) als das ach so schlimme Paradebeispiel für die bösen Killerspieler herangezogen, vielleicht werden bei dem Release kommende Woche auch wieder ein paar Medien das ganze aufwärmen.

So soll das Spiel Anleitungen von oder für die Terrorszene geliefert haben, sagten “Kritiker”.

Die vermeintliche Korrelation und daraus abgeleitete Kausalität zwischen Computerspielen und Amokläufern ist alt, wurde zuletzt aber der bayrischen CDU (u.a.) zum Verhängnis, weil sich eine Gegenkampagne entwickelt hatte. Wirklich extrem wissenschaftlich (IRONIE!) wurde in Bayern sogar ein “Kongress” zu dem Thema Gewalt und Computerspiele veranstaltet. Leider hatte man hier “vergessen”, auch eine andere, zweite Meinung mit ins Boot zu holen. Es monologisiert sich halt einfacher, wenn alle der selben Meinung sind.

Mehr und mehr entdecken nun die Medien aber die Computerspiele als normales Kulturgut. Etwa hier eine Lobhudelei beim Stern über den einstigen Bösewicht oder hier bei heise. Die Zeit schreibt hier schön, wie  Computerspiele (allgemein) in der normalen Gesellschaft angekommen sind, Wii sei dank.

Und weil es ein normales, gesellschaftliches Phänomen ist, kommen jetzt auch ´andere´ Studienthemen dazu. Neben der psychologischen Erforschung der Spielsucht wollte hier ein Team die physiologischen Effekte von Spielen erforschen. Und zwar, hier schließt sich jetzt der Kreis, die Effekte von “Gewalt”spielen gegenüber “Nicht-Gewalt”spielen. Hier gehts zum Paper.

Ein interessanter Ansatzpunkt, wie verändern Computerspiele den “Streßzustand”, welche Folgen hat das und wie lange dauert der Effekt an.

Leider schwächt die Studie an mehreren Punkten. Es sind zu wenig und ausschließlich männliche Probanden (19 Jungen) gewesen, die noch dazu in einem sehr gleichen Alter waren (zwischen 12 und 15 Jahren, wo zudem die Pubertät alleine genug Streß verursachen).

Erstaunlicher (IRONIE) Effekt: Nachdem die Jungen zwischen 20 und 22 Uhr ohne Pause ein Gewaltspiel (das in Deutschland komplett verboten war/ist) gezockt haben, zeigen sie ein meßbares Streßlevel. Nach eigenen und gemessenen Angaben haben sie alle aber gut geschlafen, egal ob sie das Kinder oder Gewaltspiel hatten.

Nächste Schwachstelle: Es wurde nur 2 Mal gespielt, als Kontrolle ein Abend ohne Spiel und ohne spannende Sport-Sendungen im Fernsehen.

Und hier ist direkt der nächste Haken: Was ist jetzt wirklich durch das Eindreschen auf Pixel-Monster induziert, und was ist reines Adrenalin? Was verursacht ein extrem hektisches Auto-Rennspiel wie Need for Speed an Streßlevel?
Wie verhält es sich mit spannenden Spielfilmen?

Mein persönliches Fazit dieser “Studie”: Nicht-Kinder-Spiele können aufregen.

Ich möchte behaupten, das ist auch die Absicht. Dabei ist es egal, ob ich Pixelmonster eliminiere oder heiße Rennen fahre. Und, so hoffe ich zumindest, läßt sich ähnliches Streßlevel bei den Jugendlichen auch mit spannenden Büchern “provozieren”.

Mein Vorschlag für weitere Studien:
-Wie stressig sind Autorennspiele?
-Wie stressig ist ein Spiel der Lieblingsmannschaft im Kampf um den Abstieg?

und natürlich dann noch die soziologische Seite
-Werden einstiege Siedlerspieler später zu Logistik-Meistern?
-Arbeiten Tetris-Meister später bei Paketdiensten?

BTW, um unnötige Diskussionen zu vermeiden:
GTA IV ist in Deutschland nur für volljährige Spieler erhältlich. Dieses und ähnliche Spiele gehören nicht in Kinderhände. Das “Killerspiele” bei gewalttätigen Kindern gefunden wurden, ist m.E. ein Symptom und keine Ursache.

Kommentare (168)

  1. #1 M***** B*****
    Dezember 2, 2008

    Also ich hab mich schon zu oft zu diesem Thema ausgelassen…
    Kann allerdings auch einiges beitragen:

    vor 1999: Top Gun, q****
    1999 – 2008: counterstrike 1.6 (mehr als 25 Stunden/ Woche)
    2008 – Heute day of defeat:source (mehr als 12 Stunden/ Woche)

    Ziwschendurch immer mal cod 1 bis 6, UT, farcry, crysis… etc
    Also eine menge “killerspiele”.

    Und trotzdem: Ich Studiere, habe Freunde, sehe gut aus (imao hehe) und bin nicht im geringsten gewalttätig.

    Es ist witzig wie die Medien immer nur die eine Seite betrachten und alles andere unter den Teppich kehren. Sollten shooter wirklich aggressiv machen, dann würde es wesentlich mehr gewalt auf der Straße geben. Schaut euch nur allein die leute in der ESL an… bis auf ein paar pubertierenden Kindern, sind die meisten wirklich vernüftige Leute.

    Das Shooter auch gute Auswirkungen haben, zeigt sich hier:
    Ich teile mit vielen Freunden dieses Hobby. Seit dem ich Studiere sehen wir uns nur selten, da wir aber mindestens einmal die Woche alle zusammen auf einem Server spielen, halten wir den Kontakt. Technologien wie Mumble oder TS kommen zum einsatz und fördern den sozialen Kontakt. Es wird gelacht, sich ausgetauscht und diskutiert.

    “Das “Killerspiele” bei gewalttätigen Kindern gefunden wurden, ist m.E. ein Symptom und keine Ursache.”

    Es gibt auch gewalttätige Kinder ohne “Killerspiele”… vielleicht sollten die Medien und Forscher nach anderen Ursachen suchen.

    Meiner Meinung nach befinden wir uns in einer verrohung der Gesellschaft. Jeder will immer nur besser sein als der Andere, mehr haben, besser aussehen. Eben ganz genau so sein, wie der erfolgreiche Überflieger im TV.
    Viele Leute streben dies so intensiv an, dass sie althergebrachte Normen und Werte überbord schmeißen.
    Ich wette zum Beispiel, dass wenn das Fernsehen (die Medien generell) einen jungen Mann, der im Bus einer älteren Dame platz macht, stärker glorifiziert, die Gesellschaft diesen Wert wieder annehmen würde.

    beste grüße

  2. #2 Chris
    Dezember 3, 2008

    Ja, ganz eindeutig ist es ein gesellschaftliches Problem. Ob Dein Beispiel mit dem Aufstehen wirklich praxistauglich ist, bezweifel ich allerdings 😉

  3. #3 Fischer
    Dezember 3, 2008

    *und natürlich dann noch die soziologische Seite
    -Werden einstiege Siedlerspieler später zu Logistik-Meistern?
    -Arbeiten Tetris-Meister später bei Paketdiensten?*

    Das will ich doch sehr hoffen! Ich geh jedenfalls jetzt wieder Total War spielen, als Vorbereitung auf die Eroberung der Weltherrschaft. 😉

    (Spaß beiseite, ich habe mir vor ein paar Monaten mal einen Überblick über die einschlägige Literatur verschafft, das war recht aufschlussreich)

  4. #4 Chris
    Dezember 3, 2008

    Hm, da habe ich Deinen (sehr guten) Artikel wohl glatt übersehen. Aber schön, dass wir uns mal wieder einig sind 🙂

  5. #5 sil
    Dezember 3, 2008

    Habe auch eine Frage:
    Werden frühere Rollenspieler zu Sciencebloggern?

    Wir haben als Studenten wöchentlich unsere Pen-&-Paper-Abende gehabt.
    Mein Lieblingscharakter war mein Halblingsdieb Boril.
    Ich bin selbst kein Dieb geworden, zu ungeschickt. 😉

    Das sind beides gute und unaufgeregte Artikel zum Thema.

  6. #6 Chris
    Dezember 3, 2008

    Hm, kA, wenn wir das jetzt mal umdrehen, haben Scienceblogger früher Rollenspiele gemacht kann ich jetzt mal mit n=1 sagen: Nein. Mal gucken, ob wir da eine etwas repräsentativere Anzahl hinkriegen…

  7. #7 Josef
    Dezember 3, 2008

    Echtzeitstrategiespiele sollen wirklich förderlich sein. Über den Stressfaktor hatte ich noch nie nachgedacht – der ist sicherlich nicht positiv für Kinder. Vor allen Dingen wenn diese über viele Stunden hinweg spielen. “Killerspiele” sind doch eigentlich nur schädlich für Kinder, da sie zu jung sind und Jugendliche, deren eigenständiges Denken noch nicht weit genug entwickelt ist. Ein Jugendlicher der klar zwischen Realität und Spiel unterscheiden kann wird meiner Meinung nach nicht von Killerspielen beeinflußt. Fernsehen verleitet ja auch nicht zum Morden, oder?

  8. #8 Chris
    Dezember 4, 2008

    Das von mir erwähnte Siedler (3) bekam übrigens damals sogar einen Pädagogik-Preis. Ob Streß negativ für Kinder ist, vermag ich nicht zu beurteilen. Aber so schlecht kann es nicht sein, sich während eines Spiels damit auseinander zu setzen.
    Das Thema Fernsehen ist so eine Sache. Das sollte mal untersucht werden: In der Tagesschau werden leider fast täglich Bilder von Leichen gezeigt, seien es Bürgerkriege oder Naturkatastrophen, die Kamera hält drauf und zeigt die nackte Realität. Wie sehr stumpft ein Jugendlicher dadurch ab? Nachrichten demnächst nur ab 22.00 mit dem Warnhinweis, nur für Zuschauer ab 16?

  9. #9 M***** B*****
    Dezember 4, 2008

    @Josef:

    “Über den Stressfaktor hatte ich noch nie nachgedacht – der ist sicherlich nicht positiv für Kinder. Vor allen Dingen wenn diese über viele Stunden hinweg spielen.”

    Im gegenteil, um so länger man ein Spiel spielt, desto Stressfeier sollte man werden. Genau das ist das Ziel des Trainings zb. von Leuten die in Liegen spielen. Wer sich erschreckt o.a. hat meist keine chance mehr den Gegner zu erwischen, weil er die Maus verreißt und “Scheibenwischer schießt”.

    Counterstrike, DoD:S usw sind viel mehr Strategiespiele als viele sich das hier vorstellen. Sicherlich kann man auch einfach wild umherballern und so viele Leute wie möglich erschießen… aber das ist nicht das ziel. Es geht vielmehr darum mit seinem Team (am besten Leute die man persönlich kennt und mit denen man voice kontakt hat) eine Aufgabe zu erfüllen. Der Gegner stellt sich da natürlich in den Weg.

    Es geht darum Taktiken aufzustellen, wer wo lang läuft, wann wer wohin eine Granate schmeißen muss, damit sie auch richtig ankommt, wie der Gegner spielt… es gibt so viele aspekte.

    Im schach schlage ich zumbeispiel auch einen Bauern. Da geht es mir doch auch nicht darum, wie ich ihn töte…

    Grüße

  10. #10 women in business
    November 1, 2015

    Good article and right to the point. I am not sure if this is truly the best place to ask but do you people have any thoughts on where to get some professional writers? Thanks in advance 🙂

  11. #11 Suggested Site
    Juni 5, 2016

    Wonderful beat ! I would like to apprentice at the same time as you amend your web site, how could i subscribe for a blog web site? The account helped me a acceptable deal. I have been tiny bit familiar of this your broadcast provided brilliant transparent concept|

  12. #12 Mitchell Schwarts
    Juli 7, 2016

    I truly wanted to make a small word to say thanks to you for some of the magnificent items you are writing at this site. My particularly long internet investigation has at the end of the day been rewarded with incredibly good facts and strategies to exchange with my family members. I ‘d point out that many of us site visitors are very much blessed to be in a fantastic community with many marvellous individuals with valuable tactics. I feel pretty fortunate to have encountered your entire webpages and look forward to really more amazing moments reading here. Thank you once again for everything.

    https://www.digitaloceanpromocode2016.com/

  13. #13 Miyoko Romito
    Januar 19, 2017

    I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here. The sketch is tasteful, your authored subject matter stylish. nonetheless, you command get bought an edginess over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come further formerly again since exactly the same nearly very often inside case you shield this hike.

  14. #14 Erasmo Burm
    Februar 8, 2017

    Very interesting details you have mentioned , thankyou for posting . “Whatever we conceive well we express clearly, and words flow with ease.” by Nicolas Boileau.

  15. #15 Benjamin Shahin
    März 18, 2017

    Usually I don’t read post on blogs, but I wish to say that this write-up very forced me to try and do so! Your writing taste has been surprised me. Thanks, very great article.

  16. #16 Taisha Spettel
    Mai 6, 2017

    Simply wish to say your article is as astounding. The clearness in your post is simply excellent and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject. Well with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please carry on the gratifying work.

  17. #17 e perfumy
    September 19, 2017

    I enjoy the efforts you have put in this, appreciate it for all the great articles.

  18. #18 바둑이사이트
    https://kmk33.com/baduki/
    März 14, 2019

    I really appreciate your work. This post is really handy and useful, I am sure people will get help from this. And thanks for sharing.
    바둑이사이트

  19. #19 릴게임사이트
    https://mnm777.com
    März 14, 2019

    awesome,,nice and simple,your blog is the simpliest and meaningful for me,,it gives me a lot i want to know,,thank you so much
    https://mnm777.com

  20. #20 카지노노하우
    https://kmk33.com/casino-know-how/
    April 9, 2019

    This is really helpful. Thanks for sharing this list, Anil. I guess the most important thing is to steer clear away from spam moderators by putting comment that actually MATTER. Anyways, I’ll be using these blogs. Thank you so much!

  21. #21 navitao
    makers and rising
    April 11, 2019

    as Fritz Hansen and LG alongside local appliance makers and rising designers. A record 286,000 visitors dropped by this year’s event over its five-day run. https://www.nox77.co.kr/mobilecasino

  22. #22 바둑이사이트
    https://kmk33.com/baduki/
    April 15, 2019

    Its an awesome post and is quite meaningful.Commenting on blogs related to your niche helps a lot.We would always be careful about what we write in our comments. I have seen many bloggers whose comments were marked as spam just because they they contained few words and were only left for backlink purposes.
    바둑이사이트

  23. #23 zabis.net
    itself as premium
    April 19, 2019

    itself as ‘premium,’” said Sohn Seong-min, a researcher at the Korea Cosmetic Industry Institute. https://www.nox77.co.kr/mobilecasino

  24. #24 토토
    https://www.sportstotopick.com
    Mai 4, 2019

    I can prove how the solution program looks to people.
    Set goals for that kind of solution program every day.
    I would only recommend programs that can be used in everyday life.
    토토

  25. #25 성인웹툰
    https://www.19guide.com
    Mai 4, 2019

    It actually looks good with the presentation, but it’s really hard to understand what the subject is.
    I think I will not understand. It is too complicated for the average user and is very extensive.
    성인웹툰

  26. #26 토토
    https://www.sportstoto.biz
    Mai 6, 2019

    I am interested in this area if you are a great site but know some community forums.
    I think it should be a good opportunity to get feedback from others who are experienced.
    토토

  27. #27 토토
    https://www.sportstoto.pro
    Mai 6, 2019

    I showed a simple blog, and I noticed that some of the images did not load.
    I can be sure. I think it’s a link problem.
    토토

  28. #28 안전한놀이터
    https://mnm777.com/mobile.html
    Juni 12, 2019

    It’s awesome that you want to share those tips with us. I assume lot of us that commented on this post are just starting to search for different ways of blog promotion and this sounds promising. This is definitely the article that I will try to follow when I comment on others blogs. Cheers

  29. #29 솔레어카지노
    https://kmk33.com/solairecasino/
    Juni 12, 2019

    That’s exactly what I do, actually read the blog and appreciate what I find in valuable. But it seems people with comments like “Great post”, “Thanks for sharing” have a better approval rate

  30. #30 osa800
    https://www.osa800.com
    Juli 8, 2019

    The origins of the game are disputed, and some sources claim that it dates to the 19th century

  31. #31 카지노베이
    https://www.daum119.com
    Juli 25, 2019

    Hey guys, this site was awesome! but recently, i found a site that will surely catch your attention and sexy desires because all you need is here.. So please check this out too.. Thanks! https://www.daum119.com / 실시간다이사이하는곳

  32. #32 슬롯머신주소
    tyuo
    Juli 30, 2019

    Have a nice day. We’d like to introduce something amazing.Click on my site if you are wondering https://www.1004king.com/ – 강원랜드식보/

  33. #33 casinosite77
    https://www.casinosite77.com
    August 1, 2019

    During the last eight years of Sejong the Great’s rule, the power to read or write was still monopolized by noblemen19 카지노사이트 – https://www.casinosite77.com

  34. #34 hgame77
    https://www.hgame77.com
    August 1, 2019

    Sejong (Song Kang-ho) meets with Buddhist monk Sinmi (Park Hae-il) to create a writing system for the people.
    호게임 – https://www.hgame77.com

  35. #35 major77
    https://www.major77.com
    August 1, 2019

    Simba (Donald Glover) idolizes his father, King Mufasa (James Earl Jones), and takes to heart his own royal destiny. 8 카지노 – https://www.major77.com

  36. #36 퍼스트카지노
    https://vfv79.com/first/
    August 19, 2019

    I think you did a good work with this article. You always share great info, You have rocked it. Blog Commenting is a very powerful solution to get a backlink from other high quality site and targeted traffic. I am getting lot of comments everyday Blog commenting is one of the best off page SEO techniques.

  37. #37 릴게임
    https://vfv79.com/
    August 19, 2019

    I think commenting is the best method of building quality links to your site. And this guide will help me even more now! Thanks!

  38. #38 크레이지슬롯
    https://vfv79.com/crazy/
    August 19, 2019

    It has been great for me to read such great information about blogging since I am still a newbie to blogging.

  39. #39 슬롯머신
    https://vfv79.com/
    August 19, 2019

    I was really looking for a detailed step by step guide to do this because I was really confused about doing this.Thanks a lot, buddy.Keep posting good stuff. Cheers.
    슬롯머신

  40. #40 jeny
    https://www.bongca88.com
    August 29, 2019

    Thank you for leaving a good article. It seems to be learning a lot of new information through your article. If you have time, please visit my site to see if there is any information that will help you. My site is
    카지노사이트

  41. #41 FMovies
    123Movies
    August 30, 2019

    It is best to take part in a contest for among the best blogs on the web. I will advocate this website!

  42. #42 성인웹툰
    https://www.19guide01.com
    September 3, 2019

    Daebak precisely what I was looking for, appreciate it for putting up. kindly check the following link below 성인웹툰 Have fun!!!

  43. #43 토토사이트365
    https://www.totosite365.com
    September 3, 2019

    I’m not that much of a online reader to be honest but your sites really nice.! 토토사이트365

  44. #44 토토픽
    https://www.totopick.biz
    September 3, 2019

    Daebak! that’s what I was looking for, what a information! present here at this website, 토토픽 thank you admin!! Totosite–Toto pick
    Private Toto, Toto Site and Sports Toto have evolved at a rapid pace due to their growing popularity and desire for a variety of games. So check this out now!!!

  45. #45 파워볼365
    https://www.powerball365.net
    September 3, 2019

    Hey buddy, I must say you have written a great article. The way you have described everything is phenomenal. If you have time, please visit my site : 파워볼365 Thanks for sharing it. TotoSite – Yabet Subscription code 999, Infinite 5-10%/3+1 5+2 10+3/Return 20%/Real-time Sports Live!!! Check this out for more promos!

  46. #46 ccss77
    https://www.ccss77.com/
    September 3, 2019

    Very helpful advice in this particular article! It is the likime changes that will make the most important changes. Thanks a lot for sharing! eww welcome to my informative blog 카지노사이트

  47. #47 ccss79
    https://www.ccss79.com/
    September 3, 2019

    You have done a great job. I will certainly digg it and individually recommend to my friends. I’m confident they’ll be benefited from this blog. ddss welcome to my informative blog 카지노사이트

  48. #48 바카라카페
    hgres
    September 9, 2019

    Our site has been researching and posting more than 10 years related to the information of the casino. https://www.google112.com/ – M카지노/

  49. #49 슬롯사이트-크레이지슬롯
    https://makeland.link
    September 21, 2019

    Thank you. My site also has lots of useful information related to the casino. 슬롯사이트-크레이지슬롯
    Especially if you want to find useful information about Baccarat, please visit my site.

  50. #50 토토
    https://www.sportstoto.biz
    September 29, 2019

    I must say you have written a great article. The way you have described everything is phenomenal. If you have time, please visit my site : 토토 Thanks for sharing it.

  51. #51 플러스카지노
    https://www.nana1004.com
    September 30, 2019

    I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue. I’ve tried it in two different web browsers and both show the same results. Check other way to work it out.. Thanks! 바카라사이트

  52. #52 yeah77
    https://www.yeah77.com
    Oktober 7, 2019

    The concept began in 1984, when St. Kitts and Nevis — a two-island nation in the Caribbean — introduced the original CIP. The practice became more popular in 2009, when the country began heavily marketing its opportunities.

  53. #53 dbk222
    https://www.dbk222.com
    Oktober 7, 2019

    Austria, Antigua and Barbuda, Malta, Cyprus and Dominica all actively market versions of CIPs and, Katz said, “Many more countries are considering adopting such programs. For example, Georgia and Kazakhstan are working on creating programs, and several other countries in the Balkans are considering them.”

  54. #54 spacasino.net
    https://www.spacasino.net
    Oktober 7, 2019

    “When I bought the house, I realized that attaining citizenship was a smarter decision than getting a residence permit that would require constant renewals.”

  55. #55 ccss77
    https://www.ccss77.com
    Oktober 7, 2019

    Typically, applicants will undergo thorough financial and criminal evaluations to ensure the money has been earned legally, prior to residency or citizenship being approved.
    https://www.ccss77.com

  56. #56 ccss79
    https://www.ccss79.com
    Oktober 7, 2019

    Perhaps unsurprisingly, the US CIP program is among the most difficult to obtain. Applicants must fulfill a five-year residence requirement before being eligible to apply for citizenship — which is not guaranteed.

  57. #57 woorigame7
    https://www.woorigame7.com
    Oktober 8, 2019

    Thank you a lot for providing individuals with such a splendid possiblity to read articles and blog posts from this web blog. pxoss Thank you very much for the good information!
    카지노사이트

  58. #58 woorisoit
    https://www.woorisoit.com
    Oktober 8, 2019

    It is usually very awesome plus stuffed with a great time for me and my office colleagues to visit your blog really three times in a week to read the new tips you will have. And of course, llop0 Thank you very much for the good information!
    카지노사이트

  59. #59 성인웹툰
    https://www.19guide02.com
    Oktober 18, 2019

    I am looking for some good blog sites for studying. I was searching over search engines and found your blog site.
    성인웹툰

  60. #60 파워볼365
    https://www.powerball365.net
    Oktober 18, 2019

    Thank you for this excellent website. I am trying to read even more articles.Many thanks again!
    파워볼365 Check out my site and enjoy our everyday promo and daebak events!! We offer so many promos to our newbies.

  61. #61 7엠스코어
    https://www.7mscore.biz
    Oktober 18, 2019

    Your blog is very interesting! I have a recommendation for you, Just click the link below:
    7엠스코어 Welcome to SportsToto Biz, the best toto site in Korea.

  62. #62 토토픽
    https://www.totopick.biz
    Oktober 18, 2019

    Your blog is awesome! So much to learn! But hey, If your looking for awesome site Just click the following link below: 토토픽 SportsToto Biz are recommended only for individual Toto sites that have been verified and whose deposit is fully paid.

  63. #63 토토사이트365
    https://www.totosite365.com
    Oktober 18, 2019

    Hi!!! I love your blog! Great content. Please do visit my webpage and learn more about online casino and sportstoto. Here’s more interesting site:
    토토사이트365 This is one of the trusted and recommended sites!! It provides information on Toto and analyzes TotoSite and Private TotoSite to provide safe and proven private TotoSite.

  64. #64 먹튀검증가이드
    https://www.totosafeguide.com
    Oktober 18, 2019

    Your content is great have a lot to share. A must read post. Definitely sharing this page. Please Just visit my site recommendation here:
    먹튀검증가이드 We have also registered various related sites on the menu. If you visit us more, we can provide you with more information.

  65. #65 먹튀검증디비
    https://www.totosafedb.com
    Oktober 18, 2019

    Hi your blog is educational! Thank you for sharing your idea to us. Are you Looking for something interesting? Just click the following link below:
    먹튀검증디비

  66. #66 casino
    https://star77.app
    November 8, 2019

    nking water is good for your body.

    카라사이트 But drinking more water than you

  67. #67 먹튀검증디비
    https://powerball365net.webnode.kr
    November 19, 2019

    That’s why marketing and advertising that you simply applicable exploration previous to publishing. It will be easy to write down superior write-up that way.
    먹튀검증디비 If you’re looking for a proven and reliable casino company, this is it. You can enjoy various games such as baccarat, blackjack, roulette, and big wheel safely.

  68. #68 성인웹툰
    https://fixyou125.webnode.kr/
    November 19, 2019

    There’s definately a lot to know about this issue. I really like all the points you made. 성인웹툰 The following casino baccarat sites are recommended sites for oncasino. This is a safe playground. Highly recommend.

  69. #69 카지노사이트가입
    https://www.bme787.com/
    November 22, 2019

    Jeder erfolgreiche Online Casino Pokerprofi nutzt diese Kennzahl und zwar permanent. Der Expected Value ist unerlässlich wenn man das eigene Spiel analysieren, die Gewinnchancen taxieren und seine Entscheidungen hinterfragen möchte. Alle Aktionen die während eines Online Casino Pokerspieles durchgeführt werden – sei es Check-Raisen, Callen, bluffen – basieren auf Rechnungen, die sich auf den Erwartungswert beziehen. Mit Ausnahme einer wenigen ausgewiesenen Mathematiker rechnet zwar niemand der Pokerspieler den Erwartungswert ganz genau aus (das ist strenggenommen auch nicht möglich, da man die Hand seines Gegners nicht kennt sondern nur einschätzt) aber man entwickelt so immer seine Tendenz. https://www.bme787.com/

  70. #70 온라인바카라 says:
    November 23, 2019

    There are even some casinos in Macau that have red rooms which were specifically made to bring good luck. 바카라사이트

  71. #71 angela
    https://hpx7.com
    November 29, 2019

    great website! https://hpx7.com / target=”_blank”> 바카라사이트

  72. #72 온카지노
    https://www.99ute.com
    Dezember 28, 2019

    You’re so cool! I don’t think I’ve ever read that before.
    It’s so nice to find someone with a unique idea about this.
    The topic is so… thank you so much for getting me started.
    This site is what the Web needs, a little original! 온카지노

  73. #73 riyan
    https//:hpx7.com
    Januar 7, 2020

    i love this site appreciated! hope you visit mine for more love !

    https//:hpx7.com 토토 사이트

  74. #74 christine
    https://www.bongca88.com
    Januar 9, 2020

    Thank you for sharing this good article.
    In return, we will introduce you to places where you can comfort your tired life.
    Please visit.
    https://www.bongca88.com -바카라사이트-

  75. #75 카지노클럽
    https://www.ccclub700.com
    Februar 4, 2020

    Diamond Roulette is the furthest you can get away from traditional roulette within the genre. The overall concept is still the same but the game has certainly been mixed up. 카지노클럽

  76. #76 vegus168 แทงบอลออนไลน์
    vegus168 แทงบอลออนไลน์
    Februar 10, 2020

    For gambling games, roulette is often considered to be a real casino game and the most worth playing in all online casino games per player, gambler …

  77. #77 예스카지노
    https://www.rng99.com
    Februar 19, 2020

    By comparison, the more accessible nature of online casinos means that for anyone looking to dip their toe in the waters playing new online slots or live casino games can do so without having to leave the comfort of their home. Mobile access also means that players aren’t restricted to when or where they can enjoy their favourite slot games, and games can be played for short periods of time without the need to commit to a whole night out. 예스카지노

  78. #78 Impulse
    Vegus
    Februar 27, 2020

    Thank you. My site also has lots of useful information related to the casino. Especially if you want to find useful information about Baccarat, please visit my site. Vegusแทงบอลออนไลน์ผ่านมือ

  79. #79 ebikemotor
    EbikemotorThailand
    Februar 27, 2020

    Delivery staff for a variety of models of electric scooters, 2 wheels, 3 wheels, great value, EBIKE MOTOR. Interested, please contact at 0979485333 or LINE @ebikemotor. รถจักรยานไฟฟ้า

  80. #80 betting33
    https://www.betting33.com
    März 5, 2020

    The young man worked a toy store in Or Yehuda, a town in central Israel and a girl who visited the store has also tested positive for coronavirus, the Ministry said.

  81. #81 PROJECTD68
    https://www.vegusbet.net/
    März 7, 2020

    This is really interesting. You are a very professional blog. I have joined your feed and look forward to finding more good articles. I share your website on my social network! vegus168 แทงบอล คาสิโนออนไลน์

  82. #82 바둑이사이트넷
    https://www.badugisite.net
    März 25, 2020

    I believe this is among the so much important information for me. And i am glad reading your article. However wanna commentary on few common issues, The website style is ideal, the articles is really excellent.W ant to learn about sports betting?visit my site here: 바둑이사이트넷

  83. #83 슬롯머신777사이트
    https://www.slotmachine777.site
    März 25, 2020

    I have recently started a web site, the info you provide on this site has helped me greatly. Thanks for all of your time & work. Are you looking for sports betting online? just click the link: 슬롯머신777사이트

  84. #84 릴게임
    https://www.reelgame.site
    März 25, 2020

    great post, very informative. I wonder why the other experts of this sector don’t notice this. You must continue your writing. I’m sure, you’ve a huge readers’ base already! want to learn more? click the link here: 릴게임

  85. #85 경마사이트인포
    https://www.racesite.info/
    März 25, 2020

    Thank you a lot for sharing this with all people you actually recognise what you are talking approximately! Bookmarked. learnmore about sports betting online! visit my site by clicking the link here 경마사이트인포

  86. #86 배트맨토토프로
    https://www.betmantoto.pro
    März 31, 2020

    A very interesting article. Thank you 배트맨토토프로

  87. #87 토토사이트웹
    https://www.totositeweb.pro
    März 31, 2020

    I am grateful to have opened this discussion. thank you토토사이트웹

  88. #88 안전토토사이트
    https://www.safetotosite.pro
    März 31, 2020

    I agree thank you for you wonderfull story 안전토토사이트

  89. #89 토토365프로
    https://www.toto365.pro/
    März 31, 2020

    Thank you for your post, I look for such article along time, today i find it finally. 토토365프로

  90. #90 메이저토토사이트
    https://www.majortotosite.pro/
    März 31, 2020

    I would like to say that this blog really convinced me to do it! Thanks, very good post. 메이저토토사이트

  91. #91 best373
    https://www.best373.com
    April 8, 2020

    In China, only patients showing symptoms and positive results in nucleic tests are included in the official tally of confirmed cases. Asymptomatic patients who have tested positive are monitored and placed under quarantine until they develop symptoms or turn negative in later tests.
    https://www.best373.com

  92. #92 dbk222
    https://www.dok222.com
    April 8, 2020

    Amid mounting public concerns, China started to announce a separate daily number of asymptomatic carriers last week. Since then, dozens of new asymptomatic carriers have been found in Wuhan everyday, with 673 currently under medical observation.
    https://www.dok222.com

  93. #93 ccclub700
    https://www.ccclub700.com
    April 8, 2020

    “Although for now, it seems that the infectiousness of asymptomatic cases are relatively low, they are still infectious and we should be vigilant,” Yang Jiong, a respiratory expert at the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, told the Health Times on Monday.
    https://www.ccclub700.com

  94. #94 hgame79
    https://www.hgame79.com
    April 8, 2020

    Apart from the easing of travel restrictions, there is another sign that Wuhan is starting to move on from the crisis: It has finally started to bury the dead.
    https://www.hgame79.com

  95. #95 ckerkj
    April 21, 2020

    hould be vigilant,” Yang Jiong, a respiratory expert at the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, told t
    mlb중계

  96. #96 ckjerkj
    April 21, 2020

    travel restrictions, there is another sign that Wuhan is starting to
    메이저놀이터

  97. #97 cjerkj
    April 21, 2020

    먹튀검증

    dkjcjekwwee

  98. #98 ckjerkj
    April 21, 2020

    토토사이트
    dkflkelklweee

  99. #99 ckjerkj
    April 21, 2020

    해외선물

    dkjekrj oieoiwoew

  100. #100 isc888 สมัครสมาชิก
    https://isc888s.net/%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%8A%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%81.html
    Mai 2, 2020

    You were great and everyone received so much from your experience and knowledge
    Absolutely amazing, thank you for sharing your knowledge with me.

  101. #101 바둑이사이트넷
    https://www.badugisite.net
    Mai 4, 2020

    I’d like to thank you for the efforts you have put in writing this blog.I really hope to view the same high-grade content from you later on as well. Looking for best online casino site? click my site here 바둑이사이트넷

  102. #102 우리카지노사이트
    Mai 15, 2020

    https://www.btlcasino.com
    As you can see, two of the casinos are located right next to each other. We are talking about Pride 1 and 2, where one is berthed on the jetty and the second one is on a yacht that is anchored nearby.

  103. #103 ZAWARUDO
    https://isc888s.net/
    Mai 16, 2020

    Hey there, Im a software developer working in ISC888 Inc. in Thailand.
    I have fond of web development, technology, and programming. I’m also interested in education and entrepreneurship.

  104. #104 슈퍼카지노
    https://www.cgg900.com
    Mai 21, 2020

    You will also find vampire slaying weapons that will help you in eliminating the blood-sucking creatures.
    https://www.cgg900.com

  105. #105 배트맨토토프로
    https://www.betmantoto.pro
    Mai 21, 2020

    I really like your style of blogging. I added it to my favorites blog site list and will be 배트맨토토프로

  106. #106 토토사이트웹
    https://www.totositeweb.pro/
    Mai 21, 2020

    since this time i am reading this enormous informative article here at my home.토토사이트웹

  107. #107 토토
    https://www.totositehot.pro
    Mai 21, 2020

    I encourage you to read this text it is fun described 토토

  108. #108 ckjerkj
    Mai 27, 2020

    놀이터추천
    ckjer oicoieee

  109. #109 cjkejr
    Mai 27, 2020

    토토사이트

    cjkerjhcoiwe

  110. #110 cherjh
    Mai 27, 2020

    먹튀검증사이트
    dkjckj oeire

  111. #111 ckjerkj
    Mai 27, 2020
  112. #112 cjkerkj
    Mai 27, 2020

    먹튀검증
    djhcjheri ieuee

  113. #113 ckjekr
    Mai 27, 2020

    파워볼게임

    ck erio oiwer

  114. #114 ajkjr
    Mai 27, 2020

    먹튀검증

    ckeroi owere

  115. #115 cjerjk
    Mai 27, 2020
  116. #116 바카라사이트인포
    https://www.bacarasite.info
    Mai 28, 2020

    For the purposes of in-play betting, customers should be aware that transmissions described as “live” by some broadcasters may actually be delayed or pre-recorded. The extent of any delay may vary depending on the set-up through which they are receiving pictures or data. Please also be aware that, for operational reasons, bet requests made in-play may take slightly longer to process. 바카라사이트인포

  117. #117 카지노사이트777
    https://www.casinosite777.info
    Mai 28, 2020

    The availability of an in-play market on our Exchange product for a particular event does not necessarily mean that there will be an equivalent in-play market for the same event on our Sportsbook or Fixed Odds product 카지노사이트777

  118. #118 바둑이사이트넷
    https://www.badugisite.net
    Mai 28, 2020

    Many gamblers will agree that playing and winning real money is a far better experience at any online casino. This is why you should choose the right casino for you that suits your needs and has a quality reputation for keeping your info and money safe. Our list has the best online casinos around and they offer the top online gaming experience for gamblers of all types. 바둑이사이트넷

  119. #119 슬롯머신777사이트
    https://www.slotmachine777.site
    Mai 28, 2020

    All online casinos have wagering requirements in place; this means any winnings made using your bonus money will only become available after wagering a certain amount. 슬롯머신777사이트

  120. #120 경마사이트인포
    https://www.racesite.info/
    Mai 28, 2020

    If you’re looking for more information regarding our services, please contact us today or check out our website. There is also information regarding banking options as well as information for those that intend to use a mobile device to enjoy gambling 경마사이트인포

  121. #121 릴게임
    https://www.reelgame.site/
    Mai 28, 2020

    online National Self-Exclusion Register that will aim to reduce gambling-related harm among Australians.릴게임

  122. #122 Matthewnoiny
    Oman
    Juni 2, 2020

    [b][/b]

  123. #123 BTL카지노사이트
    sds
    Juni 5, 2020

    Picking the Most Reputable Online Gambling Establishment https://www.btlcasino.com

  124. #124 파워볼365인포
    https://www.powerball365.info
    Juni 10, 2020

    INTERESTING!! you should upload more☺️ this is really good!!! 파워볼365인포

  125. #125 114카지노
    https://114casino.com
    Juni 16, 2020

    Hello
    I explored some quality articles or blog posts about this kind of area. What Yahoo I discovered was an accidental discovery of this website. Read this information so I am glad to inform you that I have a very good feeling that I have exactly found what I need. Most definitely, I won’t forget this site and I’ll keep looking at it at a glance. 114카지노

  126. #126 성인웹툰
    https://www.19guide03.com
    Juni 17, 2020

    Great article. Keep posting such kind of information on your blog. Im really impressed by your blog. Hey there, You’ve performed an incredible job. Now please visit my page and join to sportstoto community:성인웹툰

  127. #127 파친코
    https://www.reelgame.site
    Juni 17, 2020

    Thanks for some other informative site. Where else could I am getting that kind of information written in such a perfect means? I would like to give recommendations to you, please visit my webpage:파친코사이트

    Thank you & Good luck!!!

  128. #128 슬롯머신
    https://www.reelgame.site/
    Juni 24, 2020

    Hi to all, the contents existing at this web page are genuinely remarkable for people experience, well, keep up the nice work fellows.슬롯머신

  129. #129 19가이드
    https://www.19guide03.com
    Juni 24, 2020

    I truly appreciate this post. I’ve been looking everywhere for this! 19가이드03

  130. #130 my168
    https://mgwin88s.com/#
    Juni 27, 2020

    This is an interesting story. I like this TV play very much. I get the best and most useful information. I hope to have good articles.mgwin88 ทางเข้า Here, let’s move .

  131. #131 성인웹툰
    https://www.19guide03.com
    Juni 29, 2020

    It’s awesome that you want to share those tips with us. It is a very useful post Keep it up and thanks to the writer.성인웹툰

  132. #132 슬롯머신
    https://www.reelgame.site/
    Juni 29, 2020

    The Provided information on you blog is too good. i really appreciate your hard work. Thank again for sharing such as awesome news. i loved your article keep it up admin슬롯머신

  133. #133 메이저토토사이트
    https://www.majortotosite.pro
    Juni 29, 2020

    I am interested in this area if you are a great site but know some community forums.I think it should be a good opportunity to get feedback from others who are experienced.메이저토토사이트

  134. #134 dcedrer
    serer
    Juni 30, 2020

    해외축구중계
    d in this area if you are a great site but know some community forums.I think it should be a good opportunity to get feedback from others w

  135. #135 ckjwekr
    Juni 30, 2020

    메이저놀이터

    cwerijco oeiorewe

  136. #136 ckjwerkj
    Juni 30, 2020
  137. #137 dckjerk
    Juni 30, 2020

    카지노사이트

    cwjr iciu iuwierer

  138. #138 clwkerl
    Juni 30, 2020

    cab주소

    ckwj oriociwere erer

  139. #139 성인웹툰
    https://www.19guide03.com
    Juli 1, 2020

    meaningful for me, it gives me a lot i want to know, thank you so much.성인웹툰

  140. #140 applystars
    Tehran
    Juli 2, 2020

    وبسایت موسسه ستاره دانش پارسیان (اپلای استار) مرجع اطلاعات در خصوص تحصیل در آلمان، ویزای دانشجویی آلمان و کمک هزینه تحصیلی آلمان آماده خدمت رسانی و مشاوره به شما علاقه مندان به تحصیل در آلمان می باشد.بورسیه تحصیلی آلمان

  141. #141 homeca
    Tehran
    Juli 2, 2020

    هوم کا یک مجموعه ارائه دهنده خدمات سلامت از جمله پرستاری، پزشکی و خدمات توانبخشی در منزل و محل شما است. هوم کا کادر مجرب مراقبت و درمانی خود را بسته به نوع درخواست به شما تخصیص می دهد. تنها با یک تماس و یا با چند کلیک می توانید از مشاوره و خدمات هوم کا استفاده کنید.پرستار بیمار

  142. #142 릴게임
    https://www.reelgame.site/
    Juli 3, 2020

    what a fantastic blog and instructive posts, I definitely will bookmark your blog.All the Best!릴게임사이트

  143. #143 슬롯머신
    https://www.reelgame.site/
    Juli 3, 2020

    I conceive you have a lot of superb information, bookmarked (:.슬롯머신

  144. #144 Cratosslot Giriş
    cratosslot
    Juli 4, 2020

    Online canlı casino sitesi Cratosslot

  145. #145 cratossporting.net
    cratossporting
    Juli 4, 2020

    Canlı bahis sitesi

  146. #146 Cratosslot
    cratosslot
    Juli 4, 2020

    Vip casino sitesi Cratosslot

  147. #147 cratossporting
    cratossporting
    Juli 4, 2020

    Spor Bahisleri için Cratossporting

  148. #148 Cratosslot Giriş
    cratosslot
    Juli 4, 2020

    Online canlı casino sitesi Cratosslot

  149. #149 Oyunlar
    oyunlar
    Juli 4, 2020

    En iyi oyunlar 

  150. #150 Radyo
    radyo
    Juli 4, 2020

    Tüm radyo frekansları için

  151. #151 egitimdili
    https://www.egitimdili.com/
    Juli 5, 2020

    yks haberleri eğitim haberleri

  152. #152 jusorock
    https://www.jusorock.com
    Juli 7, 2020

    enjoy the world. i think you really love it. welcome to the my place. there’s a lot of interest things to do.

    we have games what you like and service it everyday 24/7 don’t be late to get luck!

  153. #153 메이저토토(majortoto-01.com)
    https://www.majortoto-01.com/
    Juli 17, 2020

    enjoy the world. i think you really love it. welcome to the my place. there’s a lot of interest things to do.

  154. #154 토토
    https://www.totositeweb.pro/
    Juli 17, 2020

    Thanks for your informative article, Your post helped me to understand the future and career prospects & Keep on updating your blog with such awesome article토토
    .

  155. #155 토토365프로
    https://www.toto365.pro
    Juli 26, 2020

    토토365프로
    I felt amazing reading this and I feel you are absolutely right. Inform me in the event that you are involved in garageband windows, that is my principal competency. I really hope to see you soon, bye for now!

  156. #156 cjkwerkj
    Juli 27, 2020

    his and I feel you are absolutely right. Inform me in the event that you are involved in garageband
    토토사이트

  157. #157 ckjwekr
    Juli 27, 2020

    feel you are absolutely right. Inform me in the event that you are involved in garageband
    파워볼사이트

  158. #158 ckjwekrj
    Juli 27, 2020

    먹튀검증

    ckwje roi ociw ewerweereej6

  159. #159 ckjwekrj
    Juli 27, 2020

    토토사이트

    ckje roi ociwe erwer

  160. #160 OMG카지노
    https://www.omgqq.com
    August 4, 2020

    ON THE INTERNET CASINOS ARE A EXCELLENT NIGHT TIME IN https://www.omgqq.com

  161. #161 파칭코
    https://www.pachinkosite.info/
    August 4, 2020

    I’ve got you bookmarked to check out new things you post… 파칭코

  162. #162 19가이드
    https://www.19guide03.com
    August 5, 2020

    Amazing, this is great as you want to learn more, I invite to This is my page.19가이드03

  163. #163 카지노쿠폰
    https://www.oneaca99.com/coupon
    August 6, 2020

    Thank you for the honesty. I am a new blogger and still learning the ropes! I definitely will be using these tips to publish good comments!
    카지노쿠폰

  164. #164 OMG카지노
    https://www.omgqq.com
    August 11, 2020

    I like reading through a post that will make people think. Also, thank you for permitting me to comment. https://www.omgqq.com

  165. #165 OMG카지노
    https://www.omgqq.com
    August 11, 2020

    Very interesting information!Perfect just what I was looking for! “It is our choices…that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities.” by https://www.omgqq.com

  166. #166 토토
    https://www.toto365.pro
    August 12, 2020

    토토
    Excellent web site. Lots of useful info here. I am sending it to a few friends ans also sharing in delicious. And naturally, thank you in your effort!|

  167. #167 섯다
    GhArleenyoung3@gmail.com
    August 12, 2020

    섯다
    Hello there, You’ve done an incredible job. I will definitely digg it and personally recommend to my friends. I’m confident they’ll be benefited from this website.|

  168. #168 카지노검증
    https://www.oneaca99.com
    August 12, 2020

    Good day! Do you know if they make any plugins to protect against hackers?
    https://www.oneaca99.com