# Can you solve this turning grille cryptogram from 1870?

Blog reader Jozef Krajčovič has sent me a turning grille ciphertext he found in an 1870 scientific journal. Can a reader decipher it?

The turning grille (also known as Fleissner grille) is a popular encryption tool that has been known at least since the 17th century. Here’s an example from Sweden, provided to me by Andreas Önnerfors:

Source: Önnerfors

The following turning grille is a replica, which is on display at the Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum in Paderborn, Germany:

Source: Schmeh/HNF

The following diagram shows how a turning grille encryption works (the stencil is used four times, each step is followed by a 90 degree turn):

Source: Schmeh

A turning grille encryption represents a transposition cipher. This means that no letter substitution takes place. Instead, the order of the letters is changed. To construct a Fleissner grille you can proceed as follows (start with a square matrix and fill it with numbers from 1 to 4 at random):

Source: Schmeh

Here’s a turning grille ciphertext my friend Karl de Leeuw published over 20 years ago in Cryptologia:

Source: de Leeuw

As my readers (especially Armin Krauß) have shown, even a message encrypted with a 20×20 grille can be solved with hill climbing. More information about breaking a turning grille ciphertext will be available in my next book, Codebreaking: A Practical Guide.

### A challenge from 1870

Jozef Krajčovič from Slovakia, who writes the blog Katkryptolog, has recently made me aware of two reader’s letters published in the scientific journal English Mechanic and World of Science in 1870. Both notes refer to an article titled Secret Writing, which had been contained in an earlier issue of the same journal. This article describes an encryption system invented by a Mr. Flamm. Apparently, The Times had covered this cipher, too. The reader’s letters don’t provide a description of the system, but I assume that it’s the turning grille cipher or at least something similar.

The first letter, written by a person with the pseudonym Kryptograph, states that the cipher allegedly invented by Mr. Flamm is far from new. The author writes that he has seen the same method nine years before at a seminar in Heidelberg, Germany.

The second reader’s letter was written by somebody named Tekew. It contains the following challenge cipher encrypted in the Flamm system:

Here’s a transcription Jozef provided:

```NVRDIEMHNEAT
IRVOAEINFYIU
BRNTTTEHSEUA
FHSEREPEFDRF
OORRMOSVTOHO
EIDFNOTSHTUH
RETRTEEEAMLE
EUGGSTSRIELA
TARIEGTEAMRY
OBSFOUCTTOHT
EMTRPHCOLIIE
XPSIHRTEIEYN```

Now, there are a few obvious questions:

• Is the Flamm system identical with the turning grille cipher I described above? Or is it just a similar system?
• Can a reader find the English Mechanic and World of Science article that describes the Flamm cipher?
• Can a reader solve the challenge created by Tekew?

If you can answer one of these questions, please let Jozef and me know.

Further reading: The Turning Grille message described in Jules Verne’s novel „Mathias Sandorf“

## Kommentare (9)

1. #1 Narga
29. September 2020

I HAVE FURTHER PROVED THE UTILITY OF THIS INVENTION IN THE FORM OF THE TELEGRAM BUT TO RENDER IT SAFE FOR SHORT MESSAGES OTHER CIPHER MAY BE USED TO INSURE A GREATER COMPLEXITY

2. #2 Klaus Schmeh
29. September 2020

@Narga: Thank you very much, great job!
Is it an ordinary turning grille encryption?

3. #3 Narga
29. September 2020

It seems to be the same system as Fleissners. Here is a link to Flamm’s patent containing a detailed description.

4. #4 Jozef Krajcovic
Šelpice
30. September 2020

Thanks again, Klaus and congrats to Narga for solution.

5. #5 Klaus Schmeh
2. Oktober 2020

Its confirmation of high effectivity of the hill climbing technique. Very interesting. More info about Mr. flamms kryptograph.

6. #7 Jozef Krajcovic
text
13. Oktober 2020
7. #8 Jozef Krajcovic
13. Oktober 2020
8. #9 Simon
Jena
3. Februar 2021

Although I am a bit late to the show — this cipher can now be automatically solved with the latest version (1.0.3) of JCrypTool! It uses a hilllclimbing algorithm. The help feature of the Grille plugin also contains a number of other Grille riddles 🙂

(Disclaimer: I’m a developer of JCrypTool. We used this cipher, and others, to test the Fleissner-Grille plugin’s analysis capability. Thanks for posting it!)